Diabetic foot

They talk a lot about diabetes as a disease, which is in a sharp increase in the world, but little or not enough about foot care for diabetics.


Diabetic foot is a collection of various phenomena and disorders that manifest themselves in the foot in patients with diabetes as a consequence of:

  • Damage to peripheral nerves (patients do not feel pain).
  • Damage to blood vessels (wounds do not heal).

The resulting wounds in the diabetic foot can be easily infected, which consequently leads to the formation of gangrene and amputation of the foot.

The foot in diabetic patients exhibits two types of disorder:

Functional disorders (the loss of sympathetic innervation of the muscle layers of the arterial-venous anastomosis), as a result, the foot is:

  • Dry because of impaired sweating
  • Warm
  • Edematous
  • Swollen veins in the foot.

Structural disorders (as a result of loss of muscle tone) lead to skeletal deformities that arise due to unphysiological points increasing pressure on the foot.

People with diabetes should know that prevention is the first and most important step in solving the problem of the diabetic foot and to the health and beauty of your feet. Let our professional team carry out a detailed examination of the foot.

1. Inspection of the skin and foot deformity.

•    Overview of the foot is done by finger to the fifth, looking for wounds, fissures, a blister…
•    We are looking for a thin shiny skin without hair, which is a result of poor circulation.
•    Checking the heat of feet, which are mostly dry and warm.
•    Review of nails which are generally thickened, the presence of the fungus.
•    Review of shoes, inserts, socks.

2. Palpation of peripheral pulses and capillary filling

•    On both legs palpable pulses a.dorsalis pedis and posterior a.tibialis.
•    Checking capillary filling on the big toe, normally less than 2 seconds.
3. Evaluation of sensitivity tuning fork and using the monofilaments.

Sensitivity is tested on four points, the dorsum of the thumb below the nail plate and the I, III, V metatarsal area on the dorsum of the foot. Use monofilament and put pressure 4 times on each point or tuning fork.
If there are more than four errors it is a matter of peripheral neuropathy.
If there are less than two there is no peripheral neuropathy.

Based on the examination we estimate the risk of diabetic foot.

Only here in HBL, Maria Boskovic is providing the service of medical pedicure with special instruments that prevent the occurrence of diabetic foot wounds on.

Prevention of diabetic foot

Daily examination of the foot.

  • Wash your feet every day with lukewarm water and soap but not immerse your feet for more than 3 minutes.
  • Properly dry your feet in a white cotton soft towel, especially between the toes, and then check if there is blood or pus in the towel.
  • Adequate nutritious cream that is applied between the toes twice a day.
  • Proper and professional cutting nails and calluses by pedicure educated to handle the diabetic foot.
  • Appropriate footwear means flat shoes, low heel, and thick sole. Without wearing salon shoes, shoes with a strap that cuts the foot or open sandals. Be sure no objects are trapped inside the shoes that could cut or injure your feet. Never wear your new shoes all day, but wear them every day for 30 minutes and then check if there is redness of the foot. Special shoes are available for people with bunions or foot deformities if these are necessary.
  • Socks worn by diabetics must be borderless, not tight, clean, cotton, white and always review them after removing whether there are traces of blood or pus. Women can wear tights blend of cotton and little elastane.
  • Avoid exposing your feet to extreme temperatures such as skiing or the application of hot water bottles.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Exercise every day.
  • Proper nutrition, regular control with an endocrinologist.